1． 政治理论 （100分）
1） 日语：《标准日本语》（中级上、下册） 人民教育出版社
2） 法语：《简明法语教程》（上、下册）孙辉编 商务印书馆
1）文学（50分）：英美文学选读（英文）：张伯香 著 外语教学与研究出版社 1999。
2）语言学（100分）：《语言学教程》 ( 修订版英文本 ) 胡壮麟 北京大学出版2006（第3版）2001；《语言学教程》 ( 修订版中译本 ) 胡壮麟 北京大学出版2002；《现代汉语》（增订五版上、下册）黄伯荣 廖序东 高等教育出版社2011。
continued, listed, while, lending, in, as, include, appearing, lasting, succeeded
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was ___21___ by Renaissance architecture.
Originating in 12th-century France and ___22___ into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as “the French Style”, with the term Gothic first ___23___ during the latter part of the Renaissance. Its characteristic features ___24___ the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress.
Gothic architecture is most familiar ___25___ the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and parish churches of Europe. It is also the architecture of many castle, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities, and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings.
It is in the great churches and cathedrals and ___26___ a number of civic buildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully, its characteristics ___27___ themselves to appeal to the emotions. A great number of ecclesiastical buildings remain from this period, of which even the smallest are often structures of architectural distinction ___28___ many of the larger churches are considered priceless works of art and are ___29___ with UNESCO as World Heritage Sites.
A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and ___30___, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century.
Traditional schooling is increasingly unable to prepare children for their career success. Graduating from ___31___ school is less and less likely to suffice when it comes to ___32___ a reasonable job. The one institution ___33___ we see significant growth is in the arena of community colleges for two specific types of students. One group includes those individuals ___34___ may be ready in all ways except financially to go to a four-year program, ___35___ they attend a community college for the first year or two to reduce their overall college costs. The other group is made up of students seeking training ___36___ will help them get a better job than ___37___ they can get straight out of high school, and so attend community college. But in general, parents today do not believe that schools are preparing our children. In fact that’s ___38___ we see initiatives throughout the world championing school reforms and school reinvention initiatives.
Training and education are disconnected ___39___ the needs of the workplace. More and more what we find is that education is steeped in the traditions of the ___40___, but today’s workplaces are being propelled by the economics of today. This is a serious and growing problem that we urgently need to address.
The raising of livestock is a major economic activity in semiarid lands, where grasses are generally the dominant type of natural vegetation. This economic reliance on livestock in certain regions makes large tracts of land susceptible to overgrazing. The consequences of an excessive number of livestock grazing in an area are the reduction of the vegetation cover and the trampling and pulverization of the soil. This is usually followed by the drying of the soil and accelerated erosion.
I began working in journalism when I was eight years old. It was my mother’s idea. She wanted me to “make something” of myself and, after a levelheaded appraisal of my strengths, decided I had better start young if I was to have any chance of keeping up with the competition.
44)_____ My idea of a perfect afternoon was lying in front of the radio rereading my favorite Big Little Book, Dick Tracy Meets Stooge Viller. My mother despised inactivity. Seeing me having a goodtime in repose, she was powerless to hide her disgust. “you’ve got no more gumption than a bump on a log,” she said. “Get out in the kitchen and help Doris do those dirty dishes.”
45)_____ She positively enjoyed washing dishes, making beds, and cleaning the house. When she was only seven she could carry a piece of short-weighted cheese back to the A&P, threaten the manager with legal action, and come back triumphantly with the full quarter-pound we’d paid for and a few ounces extra thrown in for forgiveness. 46)_____ Because of this defect, however, the best she could hope for was a career as a nurse or schoolteacher, the only work that capable females were considered up to in those days.
47)_____ If disappointed, though, she wasted no energy on self-pity. She would make me make something of myself whether I wanted to or not. “The Lord helps those who help themselves,” she said. That was the way her mind worked.
48)_____ Having sized up the material that Lord had given her to mold, she didn’t overestimate what she could do with it. She didn’t insist that I grow up to be President of the United States.
A. She was realistic about the difficulty.
B. My sister Doris, though two years younger than I, had enough gumption for a dozen people.
C. The flaw in my character which she had already spotted was lack of “gumption.”
D. Doris could have made something of herself if she hadn’t been a girl.
E. This must have saddened my mother, this twist of fate that had allocated all the gumption to the daughter and left her with a son who was content with Dick Tracy and Stooge Viller.
In developing a model of cognition, we must recognize that perception of the external world does not always remain independent of motivation. While progress toward maturity is positively correlated with differentiation between motivation and cognition, tension will, even in the mature adult, militate towards a narrowing of the range of perception and in the lessening of the objectivity of perception.
Cognition can be seen as the first step in the sequence of events leading from the external stimulus to the behavior of the individual. The child develops from belief that all things are an extension of its own body to the recognition that objects exist independent of his perception. He begins to demonstrate awareness of people and things which are removed from his sensory apparatus and initiates goal directed behaviors. He may, however, refuse to recognize the existence of barriers to the attainment of his goals, despite the fact that his cognition of these objects has been previously demonstrated.
In the primitive being, goal-directed behavior can be very simply motivated. The presence of an attractive object will cause an infant to reach for it; its removal will result in the cessation of that action. Studies have shown no evidence of the infant’s frustration; rather, it appears that the infant ceases to desire the object when he cannot see it. Further indications are that the infant’s attention to the attractive object increases as a result of its not being in his grasp. In fact, if he holds a toy and another is presented, he is likely to drop the first in order to clutch the second. Often, once he has the one desired in his hands, he loses attention and turns to something else.
The impact of the socialization process, particularly that parental and social group ideology, may reduce cognitively directed behavior. The tension this produced, as for instance the stress of fear, anger, or extreme emotion, will often be the overriding influence.
例：Paradise Lost by __________ presents its basic idea as a passionate appeal for freedom.
[A] John Bunyan [B] John Milton
[C] Thomas More [D] Edmund Spenser
例：The Lost Generation
例：Read the following lines from Robert Frost’s Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, and answer the questions below.
The woods are lovely, dark and deep.
But I have promised to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.
What kind of feeling does this stanza show? And how do you appreciate this poem?
例：semantics, phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicology
1. The study of words is lexis; the study of the meanings of words, phrases and sentences is ________.
2. The study of speech sounds is phonetics and the study of the sound systems of languages is ________.
3. ________ is the study of the composition of words.
4. ________ is the study of the composition of sentences.
例：Use examples to illustrate the difference between content words and function words.
例：What is your opinion about the relationship between language and culture?